Many problems were caused by the oral transmission of the original text and the proliferation of significantly different hand-copied manuscripts. They followed the suggestion of Theobald Visconti, then papal legate for the realm of Egyptand returned to Venice in or to await the nomination of the new Pope, which allowed Marco to see his father for the first time, at the age of fifteen or sixteen.
The Muslim traveler Ibn Battutawho asked about the wall when he visited China during the Yuan dynasty, could find no one who had either seen it or knew of anyone who had seen it, suggesting that while ruins of the wall constructed in the earlier periods might have existed, they were not significant or noteworthy at that time.
While Polo describes paper money and the burning of coal, he fails to mention the Great Wall of ChinateaChinese characterschopsticksor footbinding. Polo had therefore completed the story by providing information not found in either source.
Haeger argued the Marco Polo might not have visited Southern China due to the lack of details in his description of southern Chinese cities compared to northern ones, while Herbert Franke also Did marco polo go to china the possibility that Marco Polo might not have been to China at all, and wondered if he might have based his accounts on Persian sources due to his use of Persian expressions.
His accounts are therefore unlikely to have been obtained second hand. While the Italian missionary Odoric of Pordenone who visited Yuan China mentioned footbinding it is however unclear whether he was merely relaying something he had heard as his description is inaccurate no other foreign visitors to Yuan China mentioned the practice, perhaps an indication that the footbinding was not widespread or was not practiced in an extreme form at that time.
Seal of the Mongol ruler Ghazan in a letter to Pope Boniface VIIIwith an inscription in Chinese seal script Omissions Skeptics have long wondered if Marco Polo wrote his book based on hearsay, with some pointing to omissions about noteworthy practices and structures of China as well as the lack of details on some places in his book.
In one instance during their trip, the Polos joined a caravan of travelling merchants whom they crossed paths with. There, an envoy from the Levant invited them to meet Kublai Khanwho had never met Europeans.
It is also largely free of the gross errors found in other accounts such as those given by the Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta who had confused the Yellow River with the Grand Canal and other waterways, and believed that porcelain was made from coal.
Elvin concludes that "those who doubted, although mistaken, were not always being casual or foolish", but "the case as a whole had now been closed": He also noted that the only Persian source that mentions the princess was not completed until —11, therefore Marco Polo could not have learned the information from any Persian book.
Polo wrote of five-masted ships, when archaeological excavations found that the ships in fact had only three masts.
Latham works several texts together to make a readable whole. For instance, did Polo exert "political authority" seignora in Yangzhou or merely "sojourn" sejourna there.
In many cases where present mostly given in the first part before he reached China, such as mentions of Christian miracleshe made a clear distinction that they are what he had heard rather than what he had seen.
Marco does not claim any very exalted position for himself in the Yuan empire. Hawhowever, challenges this idea that Polo exaggerated his own importance, writing that, "contrary to what has often been said The party sailed to the port Did marco polo go to china Singapore travelled north to Sumatra and sailed west to the Point Pedro port of Jaffna under Savakanmaindan and to Pandyan of Tamilakkam.
They became worried about returning home safely, believing that if Kublai died, his enemies might turn against them because of their close involvement with the ruler.
Haw sees this as a reasonable claim if Marco was a keshigwho numbered some fourteen thousand at the time. His claim is confirmed by a Chinese text of the 14th century explaining how a Sogdian named Mar-Sargis from Samarkand founded six Nestorian Christian churches there in addition to one in Hangzhou during the second half of the 13th century.
They sailed to Acreand then rode on camels to the Persian port of Hormuz. The published editions of his book either rely on single manuscripts, blend multiple versions together, or add notes to clarify, for example in the English translation by Henry Yule. A year later, they went to Ukek  and continued to Bukhara.
Such detailed descriptions are not found in other non-Chinese sources, and their accuracy is supported by archaeological evidence as well as Chinese records compiled after Polo had left China.
The British historian David Morgan thought that Polo had likely exaggerated and lied about his status in China,  while Ronald Latham believed that such exaggerations were embellishments by his ghost writer Rustichello da Pisa. The English translation by A. Kublai received the brothers with hospitality and asked them many questions regarding the European legal and political system.
Polo related his memoirs orally to Rustichello da Pisa while both were prisoners of the Genova Republic. Unfortunately, the party was soon attacked by banditswho used the cover of a sandstorm to ambush them.
The two-year voyage was a perilous one—of the six hundred people not including the crew in the convoy only eighteen had survived including all three Polos. The Polos managed to fight and escape through a nearby town, but many members of the caravan were killed or enslaved.
Kublai Khan requested that an envoy bring him back oil of the lamp in Jerusalem.About Frances Wood's Did Marco Polo Go To China? In Dr Frances Wood published a book titled Did Marco Polo Go To China?, which became Marco Polo Did Not Go To China in the German version. This book, purporting to unmask Marco Polo as a fraud, has enjoyed considerable attention - which it fully merited as an entertaining piece of light /5(11).
Watch video · Marco Polo ( to January 8, ) was a Venetian explorer known for the book The Travels of Marco Polo, which describes his voyage to and experiences in Asia. Polo traveled extensively with his. Marco Polo was one of the first and most famous Europeans to travel to Asia during the Middle Ages.
He traveled farther than any of his predecessors during his year journey along the Silk Road. Did Marco Polo Go to China? is a book, by Frances Wood, arguing that Italian explorer Marco Polo never visited China but travelled no further than Persia and that he based his description of China on accounts from Persian mi-centre.com: Frances Wood.
Marco Polo Went to China After All, Study Suggests Jennie Cohen Explore the life of the legendary traveler Marco Polo as told by musician and artist Jeffrey Lewis.Download